A Publication of the Western Philippines University, San Juan, 5302 Aborlan, Palawan, Philippines

The Palawan Scientist

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The Palawan Scientist is an annual multi-disciplinary journal published by the Western Philippines University, Palawan, Philippines. It accepts original research articles, notes and short communications in agriculture, fisheries and aquatic sciences, environment, education, engineering, mathematics, sociology and related disciplines (to include arts and humanities).

Submission of an article to The Palawan Scientist implies that the work has not been previously published except in the form of an abstract in Conference Proceedings or as an academic requirement (thesis/dissertation). The work is also not considered for publication in other journals. All authors should have agreed with the contents of the paper and the author(s) agreed the transfer of copyright to WPU, the publisher of The Palawan Scientist

Manuscript Submission

      1. Authors must submit an e-copy of manuscript in Microsoft Word through the “Submit Article” menu of the website. Although English is the official language of The Palawan Scientist, researches written in Filipino and other indigenous Filipino dialects (with English Abstract) are most welcome.
      2. Received articles will be properly acknowledged and will be immediately sent off for review if it satisfies the preliminary review made by the members of the Editorial Board. If it does not satisfy the preliminary review, it will be sent back to the corresponding author for revision. No paper will be sent for review unless it strictly follows the format in this Guide to Authors.
      3. The corresponding author should upload the following files:
    • Cover letter duly signed by the author
    • Certification that the submitted article has not been published before except in a form of abstract in conference proceedings; that the same article is not under consideration for publication in any language elsewhere; that all co-authors if there are has approved its submission in the Palawan Scientist journal; that all authors will transfer the copyright to publisher upon the acceptance and publication of the article; that the article will not be published in any form or language without the consent of the copyright.
    • Complete article in MS Word with tables, figures and references
    • Tables in MS Word or MS Excel
    • Graphs or photos in PDF or JPEG files (high resolution, at least 300 dpi)

Manuscript Preparation

      1. The manuscript should be no more than 6,000 words; typewritten using Arial, font 12; doublespaced, justified on A4 (8.3”x11.7”) size paper, with 2.54 cm margins on all sides. All pages should be numbered consecutively at the center of the bottom of the page. Line numbers should be continuous (do not restart at each page).
      2. Page 1 should contain the following: title of the article, running title, author(s), affiliation(s), name and complete contact details (mailing address, telephone number, fax number, and email address) of the person to whom correspondence should be sent. A superscript in Arabic numbers should be placed after the author’s name as reference to their affiliations. The title of the paper should be centered, bold and written in a sentence form. Capitalize only the first word of the title and proper nouns if there are. Scientific name(s) when included in the title should be italicized and not enclosed in parenthesis. Provide name and contact details of at least two potential external Reviewers. The Editors reserve the right with regard to the selection of external reviewers.
      3. Page 2 should contain a short abstract of not more than 250 words. The abstract should contain facts and conclusions, rather than citation of the areas and subjects that have been treated or discussed. It should start with the hypothesis or a statement of the problem to be solved, followed by a description of the method or technique utilized to solve the problem. It should end with a summary of the results and their implications. The abstract is to be followed by a maximum of six Keywords.
      4. 4. The paper should be organized with the following main headings: ABSTRACT, INTRODUCTION, METHODOLOGIES, RESULTS, DISCUSSION, ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS, REFERENCES. Subheadings should be in bold with each main word capitalized (example: Study Site). Paper written in other formats will not be accepted or sent for review, instead it will be returned to the author for revision.

Figures and Tables

      1. Figures and tables should be numbered (Arabic numerals) chronologically. Captions for figures and tables should be double spaced and have justified margins; First line not indented.
      2. References to the tables and figures in the text should be cited as: Table 1; Figure 1; Tables 1 and 2; Figures 1 and 2. Photos, maps and drawings should be treated as Figures.
      3. The Table or Figure if possible should appear in the same page where it is firstly mentioned in the text.
      4. Figures must be in black and white if possible with a background free from major grid lines (of y-axis); the x and y axes are labeled and legend is provided.
      5. Illustration should be original line drawings of good quality and should not exceed A4 size paper. Inscriptions should be readable even if the drawing is reduced by 75%. Drawings should be scanned and saved in TIF or PDF format before embedding on the manuscript. Separate file of the photos/illustrations maybe requested upon the acceptance of the manuscript.
      6. Photographs – if possible, all photos used in the paper must have been taken by the author(s). Photos taken by other researchers/individuals/organizations must be duly acknowledged in the paper. The use of photos downloaded from the web/internet is strictly forbidden unless a written permission from the copyright holder (of that photo) is presented.

Scientific, English and Local Names

      1. All organisms must be identified by their English, scientific names and local names if possible.
      2. Scientific names must be cited for all organisms at first mention. Subsequently, only the initial of the genus should be written except when starting a sentence with a scientific name. All scientific names should be italicized. Example: Tectus niloticus; Anadara sp. Musa spp. Do not italicize the higher levels of taxonomic classification (example: family Echinometridae).
      3. Local names should be in double quotes (example: locally called “saging” not ‘saging’; “palay” not ‘palay’).
      4. Research articles dealing on species list should provide the authorities for each species (example: Conus magus Linnaeus, 1758; Enosteoides philippinensis Dolorosa & Werding, 2014).


      1. Unfamiliar terms, abbreviations, and symbols must be defined/spelled out at first mention.
      2. Mathematical equations should be clearly presented so that they can be interpreted properly. Equation must be numbered sequentially in Arabic numerals in parentheses on the right-hand side of the equations.
      3. Numbers lesser than 10 should be spelled out (for example: eight trees, 10 fish) except when followed by a unit of measure (for example: 9 cm, not nine cm). Numbers should be spelled out when starting in a sentence (example: Nine fishermen were…).
      4. No apostrophes in years (example: 2014s not 2014’s)
      5. No periods in acronyms (example: UNESCO not U.N.E.S.C.O.; CITES not C.I.T.E.S.)
      6. Write dates in this manner: day-month-year (example: 20 October 2012 or 20 Oct 2012).
      7. Use the International System of Units of measurements. Separate the value and the unit of measure (example: 5 mm, 25 g, 30 m3, 100 μm, 9 ind ha-1, 10 sacks ha-1, 2 kg h-1 day-1). To fix a single space between the value and its unit of measure, use the MS word command “CTR+SHIFT+SPACE BAR” to provide a space between the value and its unit of measure.
      8. Do not separate a percent sign with the number (example: 5%, 30%).
      9. Use 24-h system for time (example: 13:00 instead of 1:00 pm). To express a measured length of time, abbreviations for hour (h), minutes (min) and seconds (sec) will be used (example: 2 h and 30 min; or 2.5 h).
      10. Use a single capital letter when writing latitude and longitude (example: 9°44’27.80”N and 118°41’2.01”E).
      11. Compass points (north, south, east, west) and their derivations (northern, southern, eastern, western) are lower-cased (example: north of Palawan) except when they form part of the place name (example: South Cotabato; Eastern Samar).


      1. References to the literature citations in the text should be by author and year; where there are two authors, both should be mentioned; with three or more authors, only the first author’s family name plus “et al.” need be given. References in the text should be cited as:

           > Single author: (Frietag 2005) or Frietag (2005)
           > Two authors: (De Guzman and Creencia 2014) or De Guzman and Creencia (2014)
           > More than two authors: (Sebido et al. 2004) or Sebido et al. (2004)

      2. Use a semi-colon followed by a single space when citing more than two authors. Arrange by date of publication with the latest being the last in the list (example: Sebido et al. 2004; Frietag 2005; De Guzman and Creencia 2014).
      3. Use a comma followed by a single space to separate citation of different references authored by the same author (example: Jontila 2005, 2010). If the same author and year are cited, use a “letter” to distinguish one paper over the other (example: Creencia 2010a,b).
      4. Alphabetize authors with the same year of publications (example: Balisco and Babaran 2014; Gonzales 2014; Smith 2014).
      5. Write journal’s name in full (examples: The Palawan Scientist, not Pal. Sci; Reviews in Fisheries Science, not Rev. Fish. Sci.).
      6. The list of citation at the end of the paper should include only the works mentioned in the text and should be arranged alphabetically.
      7. Citing journal articles– name(s) and initial(s) of author(s), year, full title of research article (in sentence form), name of the journal (not abbreviated), volume number, issue number (if given), range of page numbers, DOI number (if available) and/or web link:
      Dolorosa RG, Grant A and Gill JA. 2013. Translocation of wild Trochus niloticus: prospects for
             enhancing depleted Philippine reefs. Reviews in Fisheries Science, 21(3-4): 403-413.
             DOI: 10. 1080/ 10641262. 2013. 800773.
      Jontila JBS, Balisco RAT and Matillano JA. 2014. The sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea) of
             Palawan, Philippines. AACL Bioflux, 7(3): 194-206.


      8. Citing of books – name(s) of author(s), year of publication, full title of the Book (capitalize each main word), publisher, place of publication and total number of pages.
      Gonzales, BJ. 2013. Field Guide to Coastal Fishes of Palawan. Coral Triangle Initiative on
             Corals, Fisheries and Food Security, Quezon City, Philippines. 208p.
      9. Citing a chapter in a book – name(s) of author(s), year, full title of the chapter in a book (capitalize each main word), last name of editor and title of book, edition, publisher, place of
      publication and page range of that chapter:
      Poutiers JM. 1998. Gastropods. In: Carpenter KE and Niem VH (eds). FAO Species
             Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. The Living Marine Resources of the
             Western Central Pacific Seaweeds, Corals, Bivalves and Gastropods. Food and
             Agriculture Organization, Rome. p364-686.
      10. Citing a Webpage – names of the author (s), year, Title of the article, webpage address and date accessed.
      Morrison H and Pfuetzner S. 2011. Australia Shells.
             http://www.seashells.net.au/Lists/ TEREBRIDAE. html. Accessed on 4 Sept 2011.
      CITES (Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species. 2014. The CITES
             Appendices. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora
             and Fauna. www.cites.org. Accessed on 5 Jan 2014.
      11. Citing a thesis or dissertation – author’s family name, initial names of the author, year, title of the thesis, degree, name of institution, address of the institution, total number of pages (p).
      Guion SL. 2006. Captive breeding performance of Crocodylus porosus (Schneider 1901)
             breeders at the Palawan Wildlife Rescue and Conservation Center. BS in Fisheries.
             Western Philippines University-Puerto Princesa Campus, Palawan, Philippines. 28p.
      Lerom RR. 2008. Biosystematics study of Palawan landraces of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Doctor
             of Philosophy, Institute of Biological Sciences, University of the Philippines-Los Baños
             College, Laguna, Philippines. 197p.
      12. Citing a Report
      Picardal RM and Dolorosa RG. 2014. Gastropods and bivalves of Tubbataha Reefs Natural
             Park, Cagayancillo, Palawan, Philippines. Tubbataha Management Office and
             Western Philippines University. 25p.
      13. In Press articles when cited must include the name of the journal that has accepted the paper.
      Alcantara LB and Noro T. In press. Growth of the abalone Haliotis diversicolor (Reeve) fed
             with macroalgae in floating net cage and plastic tank. Aquaculture Research.
      14. Citing an article from an online news paper.
      Cuyos JM (2011) Endangered deep-sea shells seized from Mandaue firm. Inquirer Global
             Nation, Cebu. http://globalnation. inquirer.net/ cebudailynews/news/view/20110325-
             327558/Endangered-deep-sea-shells-seized-from-Mandaue-firm. Accessed on 31
             May 2012.